The best way to learn Python is to work through examples and exercises!

The Python Tutorial: This is the canonical tutorial for Python; however, it will be most useful to those with programming background.

Learn Python the Hard Way: One of best free textbooks on learning Python.

Thinking like a Computer Scientist: Learning with Python: Fantastic introduction to Python and programming in general.  Exercises help you grasp the fundamentals of object-oriented programming.

Online Python Tutor: Input your code, and this will provide you with a visual representation of how your Python code is working. Great for learning and debugging.

CodeAcademy Python Tutorial:  Courses in the Python basics.

Python Challenge: A programming riddle that’s a fun way to learn Python.

PyVideo: Video clips of talks on a variety of Python functionality, mostly from PyCon.

Python Snippets: Snippets of code for doing everything from scraping all links from a webpage to stripping html tags to getting IP addresses with Python.

DiffNow: Code comparison tool. DiffNow allows for comparison of snippets of code side-by-side to identify differences. Great for debugging.

Natural Language Toolkit: This online book facilitates learning the basic aspects of Python in a natural language processing context.

Enthought Python distribution: includes a recent stable release of Python along with common packages for scientific computing

Running Python and R Together: How to access R from Python using RPy2.

Rich Nielsen's Web Scraping Example

Presentation on Web Scraping

FAS IT Slides, Basic Scraping: Excellent basic tutorial to scraping in Python. 

FAS IT Slides, Advanced Scraping: Excellent more advanced tutorial to scraping in Python.

FAS IT Slides, Parallelism and Performance:  Introduction to implementing very large jobs.

Justin Grimmer lecture slides and example code: Excellent introduction to the methods behind textual analysis, as well as useful code examples.  Working through all the lecture slides is recommended.

Andy Hall scraping in Python code: Excellent tutorial and code.

Stackoverflow: Essentially all of your Python and scraping questions have already been answered.  Google your question + stackoverflow as a first resource.

oDesk.  Python is complicated.  Some political scientists outsource their coding needs.

Sorting Large Number of Files in Python: Occasionally you have a very large number of files and want to sort them into various folders based on words or phrases in the file. This code snippet shows how to do so with Python. 

Installing Python Modules on RCE: If you're running Python on the RCE, you probably have two problems: the latest version of Python (2.7) is not available, and you don't have administrator access to install modules. Never fear, you can get around these problems by installing Python to your shared home directory and running it from there! This code snippet can be used to install and run any program from your shared home directory.

Have the RCE Send you a Text Message When Your Python Job is Done: When running large jobs that take a few days, it is nice to know when your job is done.  Add this code to the end of your Python script and the RCE will text your cellphone when the job is complete.